Another hot take about what may be coming. The USP for this one is that
- It tries to use some academic theories but in plain English
- It admits up front – “who the hell knows?”
- It actually foregrounds the crucial question other posts (e.g. this otherwise interesting one) ignore – “who is going to bell the bloody cat?”
Look, you’re in lock down, and this will kill 15 minutes or so….
In the following essay I try to do four things. Firstly, I want to suggest some intellectual tools which might be of use to you in thinking about what is going on/will go on. There are plenty of such tools knocking about (Marxist-or-other dialectics, policy theories, conspiracy theories, economics and other poking- around-in-the-chicken-entrails). This essay only focuses on two, and some of my favourites (1) don’t make the cut.
The two in use here are sociotechnical transitions (“Multi-Level Perspective” and deep transitions) and neo-institutional theory (both the ‘pillars’ image and ‘institutional work’). I will try to keep this first section as pithy and vivid as possible, but, you know, these things come from academia, so there are limits on their digestibility. I’ll end that section with a shout out to some ideas I’ve encountered in the last few days which look tasty but which I haven’t had time to chew on.
Secondly, I want to use these tools to make some suggestions on the sorts of behaviours we will see as the pandemic continues/wanes. This section will draw on what others have been writing of late.
Thirdly, I want to suggest the cat belling question is equivalent to the “Van Halen demand no brown M&Ms backstage” tactic(2). That is to say, if an article – academic or popular – isn’t clear about who has to act, and how, then it’s probably a waste of your time. And so in order not to be a waste of your time, I give my current answer to that question.
Finally, I want to flag just how much we don’t know, and things we should look at. This is the bit where I hope someone with access to ERC funds goes “give that man – who has signally failed to get more than one of the 6 jobs he has been interviewed for in the last year – a postdoc. Money is no object.”
First, two disclaimers –
- Who the hell knows? The ball we are staring into is less limpid crystal ball and more pitch black bowling ball. And while we are talking balls, the wrecking ball of Coronavirus puts paid to many firm facts that seemed so damn solid four weeks ago. (who knew there was a magic money tree, eh?) But which of these facts have melted into air, and which of them have moved aside/fallen over, only to get up again in the near future? Who the hell knows?
- If I seem glib, it’s because I am glib. I, famously, don’t have skin in this game. If I had gone done the breeding thing, I’d be going out of my gourd about now. But the glibness, well, it’s a transparent (in every sense) defence against the night terrors, innit?
Part 1: “If the only tool you have is a hammer…”
We are all of us struggling to make sense of what is going on these last few weeks. The most easy thing to do is keep track of death rates, of where we are compared to this country or that country (Italy seems to have become the baseline for Europe at least), and curse that we aren’t living in New Zealand, where they seem to mostly have their shit together (certainly their Prime Minister talks a much better game than her Australian/UK counterparts). That gives us a temporary sense of control, because, you know, numbers make it scientific(3).
Next along, it becomes a morality play – of who ignored what warnings, who shut down what, who stripped what public sector organisation of which crucial resources. This is all good grist for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to be held in (checks notes) …2022 or so.
The slightly more sophisticated version is to decry neoliberalism, and the casual stripping of the state’s capacity to act, flogging off anything that isn’t nailed down and selling it at firesale prices to rich mates who happen to be donating to your political party and/or providing you with a job once you’ve done your years in the trenches as a party hack or a bureaucrat. That’s a morality play with footnotes, with the added advantage that it takes you closer to the systemic nature of what has been done to collective provision. And you can bop along to REM’s Ignoreland as you read Harvey, Mirkowski, Brown, or the “much raking” about Dark Money. If you’re nimble, you might even get a couple of publications out of it.
Still, morality plays with footnotes don’t help us orient ourselves. And right now, we could seriously do with some shared situational awareness.
So, what is to be done? What tools (that I am aware of) might help us see this more systemically, but still allow us to think in a granular level about the what is to be done (WITBD) question in ways that go beyond pleasantries, platitudes and shibboleths?
I’ve got two proposals, which are, to be fair, kinda linked. The first is socio-technical transitions (mostly “Multilevel Perspective” – I am probably overcooking it and under-referencing ‘deep transitions’ ). The second is institutional theory – especially the work of Scott (three pillars) and the whole “institutional work” thing.
First, MLP/Deep Transitions.
The MLP was first propounded in the late 1990s in the context of ‘sociotechnical transitions’. These are long, slow changes from one relatively stable state to a new relatively stable state. Shortest way to explain transitions: if Doctor Who used his/her Tardis and went to 1400 and found a sailor and took them to 1800, the sailor would be impressed but not totally freaked out. They’d see that the basics were the same – trees were cut down, turned into planks into hulls. Then some masts. Sails were made. Ropes were made. People had jobs as sailors, provisioners etc. Sure, some new kit (astrolabes, chronometers etc) but the basics were unchanged. If the good Doctor were to scoot them forward to 1900 and it’s all metal steamships and it would blow their 1400AD minds: “wtaf?”
So, in the intervening 100 years, “everything changed”. And there had been a prolonged battle between sail and steam, with all sorts of folks jockeying to maintain the current system or switch to a new one, based on where their money was coming from, what they thought was ‘right’.
So, one durable/popular way to talk about sociotechnical systems and their staying power/inertia has been the multilevel perspective (MLP). What follows is exceptionally crude.
The MLP three levels – landscape, regime and niche. The landscape level – this is where there are long term “big” factors which no individual actor can really shift or control – so for the rise of the steamship it might be associated developments in transport (railways), communications (telegraph), business management (see Alfred Chandler), Western expansionism/colonisation etc.
The “regime” (or “system” – there’s a lot of debate about these terms, because, well, academics) is where the “big beasts” are trying to keep things on, ah, an even keel (sorry). Big business, trade associations, government departments, regulators. Anyone who is likely to get quoted in the first eight paragraphs of a Financial Times “state of the sector” special feature. And in the 19th century it would be the big shipbuilders, insurers, the British Navy, the American Navy etc.
Finally, you’ve got the “niches” where lots of experiments take place – people tinkering in their proverbial garden sheds, innovators and entrepreneurs who either want to bring a new product to market to get rich (or die trying), or who want to change the way the “regime” is made up and what it does. There’s a whole industry around “strategic niche management” and who counts as a niche actor. Obviously regime actors are paying attention and will adopt innovations from the niches in order to gain position within the regime or else kill an innovation that would threaten their position (think of the Japanese state versus Western tech, up until 1853).
What happens is that eventually the technology (and behaviours which enable and are enabled by that technology become more ‘efficient’/obvious and a new regime is formed from the wreckage of the old. Wars can speed this up (Johnstone and McLeish, 2020). Pandemics? Well, we shall see….
There are many many criticisms of the Multi-Level Perspective, many of them compelling , and all of them outside the scope of this particular article. Recently, there’s been a repurposing of the MLP, or subsuming of it into the notion of “Deep Transitions (DT).” DT covers the idea that the kind of transition we need to cope with climate change – a massive, rapid decarbonisation of the interlocked systems which mean we can move about, feed ourselves and live in warm-enough houses – can/must be accelerated, and that we can learn some tricks to do that from looking at history.
The MLP and DT are useful tools, perhaps (but certainly not on their own). Where coronavirus fits in is in the sense of “landscape shocks”. This pandemic, long predicted (Garrett, 1994) is, as the person who kindly phoned me the other week (4) put it, the mother of all “landscape shocks”, which destabilise and possibly delegitimise the regime. The regime relies on the consent (cognitive capture, if you want to go full Gramsci) of those participating. This last few weeks beats the tearing down of the Berlin Wall, 911 and so on as the ultimate “wtaf?” moment. We are in the earliest days, and it already has unfathomable implications for many industries (newspapers, restaurant industry, insurance, you name it). With many “normal” things now stigmatised, what might emerge in its place?
As Johann Schott says –
“The key question is whether the new practices, that generate positive impact, can be continued over the longer term when the shock disappears. After all, ‘cancel everything’ can’t be a motto for the longer term, but perhaps cancelling the commute to work to attend just one face-to-face meeting that could be conducted online instead, may become the norm. ”
And – more importantly which of these new behaviours/norms might stick around and which will be gone like a fist when you open your palm?
Which brings me to the second useful intellectual tool: institutional theory. There’s a basic confusion in English between organisations and institutions, with the latter term being used to describe the former. But organisational theory is something else (and quite fun – especially if you get off on understanding just how horrifically unfit for purpose most outfits (in the Richard Stark sense) are: Pournelle’s Law, the Peter Principle, Parkinson’s Law, Michels’ Iron Law of Oligarchy, the Tyranny of Structurelessness etc etc).
Institutional theory is more about “institutions” in the sense that, in the words of Peter Cook that mawwiage, is an institution. So, the two ways I find particularly useful (again, see (1)) for thinking about “institutions” defined as
“ … social structures that have attained a high degree of resilience. [They] are composed of cultural-cognitive, normative, and regulative elements that, together with associated activities and resources, provide stability and meaning to social life. Institutions are transmitted by various types of carriers, including symbolic systems, relational systems, routines, and artifacts. Institutions operate at different levels of jurisdiction, from the world system to localized interpersonal relationships. Institutions by definition connote stability but are subject to change processes, both incremental and discontinuous.”
are (drumroll please) these.
- Scott’s Three Pillars and
- Institutional work (creative, maintenance, defensive, disruptive)
Scott (1995) suggests we think of institutions as held up by three pillars.
- Cultural-Cognitive Pillar – “how the world works, according to my culture, what I should think of as proper and commonsensical
- Normative Pillar – what seems “right” and proper
(side-note: Bourdieu kind of went here with his ‘habitus’)
- Regulatory – what are the rules (both legal and otherwise) of the game (yes, in The Wire sense).
The crucial point is that although these are “pillars” they can (and do) change over time. When I was growing up in Australia in the 1980s it was a ‘fact’ that homosexual men were perverts, and child abusers. Well, common sense changed…
The pillars/norms around “the market” and “neoliberalism” were contested from their birth, but gained dominance in the early 1980s and endured until 2008. Zombie-like, they have staggered on. In the coming months and years there will be an intense battle over not the existence of the magic money tree, but who gets to shake it and who gets to gather what falls from that tree… There will be all sorts of battles…
This brings us to institutional work, first propounded by Lawrence and Suddaby (2006). It is
“the broad category of purposive action aimed at creating, maintaining, and disrupting institutions and businesses .”
So, those pillars are being built, shored up, chipped away at all the time. One of the most intriguing papers on this is about how DDT went from wonder-chemical to pariah in the space of ten years (Maguire and Hardy, 2009). We will be seeing a hella lotta defensive and disruptive institutional work over the coming years, and also concerted efforts at creative institutional work – trying to create new norms and common senses around new behaviours.
Before I try to deploy the MLP and institutional work to ‘what next’, I want to shout out to two other tools which don’t make the cut but have the potential to be seriously interesting.
Firstly, within psychoanalysis – the Claustrum (Fife and Hines, 2020)
“When experiencing an environment which is intensely punitive, has little to provide, but upon which one’s survival depends, people develop predictable defenses—fantasies of how their environments work—and in various ways retreat into these fantasies, which filter their perceptions of the world and can provide a sense of safety. Or, if not safety, at least predictability—the truly new being far scarier than repeated contact with the evils one is familiar with. Psychoanalyst Donald Meltzer described the resulting subjective reality as the “claustrum.” These defensive fantasy-lenses are structured around three primary themes: 1) a dreamy apathetic denial of problems, 2) a compulsive need to convert everything into a bacchanalian party, and 3) a preoccupation with exposing and unmasking “falseness.” What draws one into the claustrum is the need to replace the confusion of reality with some kind of predictable, repeating experience that will reduce anxiety or at least provide a familiar cast of characters.”
Secondly, Peter Mair’s “hollow but hard” states.
Part 2: If I had a hammer
There are already a bunch of quite good “what comes next?” posts out there about how the pandemic ends (Yong, 2020) and what might come next (Mair, 2020 ) and how climate change action ain’t gonna happen (Bordoff, 2020)
Fwiw, I should probably map the Mair one
“From an economic perspective, there are four possible futures: a descent into barbarism, a robust state capitalism, a radical state socialism, and a transformation into a big society built on mutual aid. Versions of all of these futures are perfectly possible, if not equally desirable.”
onto David Holmgren’s peak oil/climate matrix at some point… But not today.
Pretty much everyone is alive to the danger of the status quo getting shored up. See Mazzucato (2020) and also Lombrana 2020-
“There’s a risk that countries and companies will revert back to what they know works, Mountford says. Shovel-ready coal or fossil fuel projects that were halted in recent years on environmental concerns could easily be reactivated”
Let’s take the two intellectual tools I banged on about in the first part of this essay – MLP and Institutional Theory – and see if there are any rough (5) thoughts we can sketch out.
Well, there has been a landscape shock. So, the regime actors will be looking to either maintain the status quo OR ELSE push towards a new stable system they think they can dominate.
That is to say, there is not and will not be a single “they”. Some current incumbents and incumbencies (we need to think of this processually. Get me another time on the whole “T-800 versus T-1000″ thing) will want to return to a recognisable version of the good old days. Others may think that they are more likely to be able to dominate a NEW system, and put their energies into creating that.
Maybe we should start thinking in terms of “status-quo-seeking incumbents” and “change-the-world-to-get-rich-from-the-change incumbents.” It will depend on what assets they have, what absorptive capacity, what cognitive capacity and appetite for risk the decision makers have, how they can communicate that, how constrained/embedded they are in other relationships (can they get their shareholders/investors to take a punt?)
When it comes to mobility and energy, Elon Musk, presumably, will be in the latter category, as will electric scooter makers. Car manufacturers with enormous sunk costs and interests in something that looks and sounds like an internal combustion engine maybe less able to be nimble, for a host of reasons (6). This battle, clearly one that was coming, just got accelerated by a very small bug. So it goes.
In terms of consumer goods, new “zero infection risk” products will be promoted. There will be an emphasis on ‘cleanliness’ and ‘ease of disinfecting.’ These will be advertised with a seal of approval from this or that official sounding body (some legit and desperate for cash or needing to burnish their own cred, others little more than front groups).
What will incumbents do in defence of their incumbent position? The glib answer – “whatever they think they can get away with”. The more interesting question is how they will go about doing it.
We are of course already seeing massive bailouts being garnered already (Tienhaara, 2020; Dayen, 2020). Simultaneously, we are seeing a bonfire of ‘red’ and ‘green’ tape (environmental regulations.
All sorts of niche actors will either believe in their own ‘technology’ as the rightful one (and there is, as you would expect, a tendency to moralism among the niche actors, many of whom are motivated by disgust and despair at the behaviour of the regime actors). Others will be hoping for a quick buck, to form a marriage of convenience with existing incumbents. To the dismay of many, the Sustainability Transitions Research Network, on the morning of Wednesday 1st April, announced some kind of sleazy sponsorship deal with the Bilderberg Group.
However, before we get too bogged down in incumbents and niche actors, I would argue that the best way to think of this is through MLP and Deep Transitions PLUS institutional theory. It’s a bit clunky, because this is a first pass. See section 4 for more about this…
|Work which incumbents/incumbency might do.||Work which ‘niche’ actors, and “change the world to get rich from the change” incumbents will do|
|Cultural cognitive pillar||Maintain and defend by finding new partners to burnish selves (as per STRN). More tie-ins/sponsorships of charities/worthy causes
Highlighting the the work it did during the crisis (donations of stock/expertise)
Defend by delegitimising niche actors as unproven, dangerous, ‘dirty’.
|Create new common sense by showing customers that new products and behaviours are easy, clean, pro-social.
Disrupt existing incumbents by emphasising their bad behaviour, their need for taxpayer bailouts, labelling them dirty old dinosaurs.
|Normative pillar||Create and maintenance work by states and security apparatus attempting to (further) habituate consumers and citizens into a) handing over their data automatically as an act of civic-mindedness and b) delegitimise citizen questioning of states as ‘carping’ or ‘a resource drain during an emergency’ (already we’re seeing in the UK various public bodies delaying answering Freedom of Information Act requests) (7) and Agamben, (2020).||Disrupt by delegitimising previously ‘normal’ technologies and behaviours (the improvements in air quality in cities will be latched onto by EV makers, as soon as it doesn’t look opportunistic. They will try to kill off the legitimacy of the Internal Combustion Engine. Someone will go too early, others will learn, hold back. Then there will be a flood)
Legitimise “sharing,” but in ways that allow capital accumulation (they’ll try, but personally I don’t see AirBnB making a big comeback anytime soon).
|Regulatory pillar||Using the state to maintain the status quo, via using “safety” and “cleanliness” rhetoric to raise bar for new entrants (especially likely in food production/retail)||Try to disrupt by getting new rules attached to bailouts for “status quo seeking incumbents”
Try to get wiggle room in regulations and laws for ‘experiments’ (ideally with the tax payer picking up the tab/acting as insurer or last resort).
What will happen when the emergency “ends”?
If you asked me to bet, I’d say we will see “corporate liberalism as Gabriel Kolko called it or The Thing as Cobbett called it ever further entrenched. Obviously I could be wrong, and I hope I am. (But hope is not a strategy – as we shall come back to.)
Some new practices will last only for the period of emergency, only to be undermined by wily incumbents, exploiting and amplifying the enormous and understandable desire to return to something like “normality”. Presumably some new infrastructures (such as they are) and new social and moral norms will persist. Who knows which ones?
Part 3: Give me a long enough damn hammer and I will move the world, aka “who is gonna bell the bloody cat?”
In which I argue that if the worthy “our post-coronavirus world needs to look like this” article by the worthy person/people you are reading is not explicit and specific about WHO IS GONNA MAKE IT HAPPEN, then it is not worth your time (8).
For those who don’t know the story –
A group of mice get together to discuss ‘what is to be done?’ A new cat has been gobbling them up at will. They debate various plans to nullify the threat of the marauding cat. Various stupid ideas are put forward (e.g. “ask the cat to be socially responsible”). Finally one of the mice proposes placing a bell around its neck, so that they are all warned of its approach.
The plan is applauded by the other mice, and the meeting is about to break up, ‘job done’.
Then one of the elderly mice raises his little mouse paw and asks who will volunteer to place the bell on the cat.
All of the applauders make excuses about why it can’t be them…
Look, we bring our baggage with us, to new towns, new places. I may as well put my baggage on the table: I have (terminal?) ennui, a dread of (and inability not to go on?) making the same mistakes. And I go to meetings – be they activist or academic where smart and/or brave people reel off shopping lists of Good Things that Should Happen.
But it isn’t real. We’re deserting the real, most of the time, for understandable (and sometimes forgivable) reasons. For me, the question is not “what needs to happen?” but – and sorry for shouting- Who. Is Going. To. Make. It. Happen? What constellation of actors are we talking about – Activists locking themselves to things? Academics whispering in policymakers ears? CEOs driving change from above?
So, I agree with David Osland –
“Coronavirus will likely see a transformation in popular political consciousness on a par with 9/11 and the financial crisis. If the left cannot harness that shift behind an egalitarian agenda, the right will use it to ram home its nationalist and authoritarian vision.”
I also agree with the skepticism of Chris Shaw
“I wish I could believe that the millions of impoverished and the bourgeois will together use this crisis to waken to a new consciousness of the oneness of all existence and the suffering caused by grasping.”
With regards to “last chance to save the earth”, we have been here before. I know I am a stuck record on this, but there have been three previous waves of concern about ‘the fate of the planet’ in relation to (gradual) environmental degradation – in the late 1960s to early 1970s (Blueprint for Survival, Limits to Growth, Earth Day), the late 1980s to early 1990s (Amazon, Ozone, Greenhouse, Rio), and then the late 2006s (Inconvenient Truth, IPCC 4AR, Copenhagen) one.
Now we are (or were?) in another, thanks to the obvious failure of Paris, Greta, XR, 1.5 degrees report, COP26.
But (and it is a big but)
Social movement organisations and “left populism” (I cannot speak highly enough of Fife and Hines, 2020, btw) are generally unable to sustain their anger, their energy. It’s too easily captured, corralled (see Barlow 2010 on this) and commodified. And on climate – well, we’re staring into the abyss here, folks, and the Nietzsche had some advice for niche actors who do that.
We sociotechnical transitions scholars know this. We know how hard it is to create a sustained and sustainable market for ideas, technologies, how easy it is for incumbents to disrupt or purchase them.
And look, the COVID19 thing MIGHT be an enormous opportunity but
- If green groups go too early, they will look opportunistic and suffer a backlash.
- There will be an enormous amount of money spent on PR to burnish the status quo or funnel it to a new accumulation-friendly regime.
- Captured states (and all of them are) will pass all sorts of hellacious laws against dissent.
- There will be a desperation among grieving impoverished populations (so many businesses shut down, so much domestic violence – mostly by men, so much education interrupted, so much PTSD, many hopes and dreams shattered) to ‘return to normal’. Yes, even when that normal was in every available sense ‘unsustainable.’
So, what is needed is the following.
Citizens’ groups which are capable of
- sustaining themselves, emotionally, financially, cognitively – avoiding the temptations of being co-opted, the dangers of being repressed, the lure of the smugosphere/and enacting or being enacted by emotacycles
- Linking with other groups for mutual aid
- Forcing the state (local, national) to be less horrifically a captive of the incumbents
- Figuring out how to have sustained alliances with people who don’t look like, talk like, think like them
- Figuring out how the incumbents will try to crack them (see above) and devising effective countermeasures
Here is something – CEM says – What’s going on, what’s going wrong (and why), and what is to be done? – I mostly wrote, with input from my colleagues in Climate Emergency Manchester. It’s seven weeks old and feels like it is from another century. But it kinda stands up as a program. Kinda…
Oh, and there’s that climate change thing from a few years ago. (ONION)
I am not saying this is doable. I am not saying it isn’t doable. I am saying that if we allow the intellectuals who enjoy our attention, in meatspace and cyberspace to
- Keep it all in the realm of Shopping List Politics,
- Decline to answer the basic question “what have we been doing wrong in the past?”
then we are wasting the last of the last chances our species has for some sort of comfortable non-barbarism life on this planet. (8)
Section 4: Gizza postdoc
Here’s what – imho – needs studying, using MLP/Deep Transitions, Institutional Pillars/Work and whatever other intellectual tools I find down the side of the sofa…
- How will the incumbents in [insert sector here – transport, mobility, food, politics] use the COVID19 pandemic to reinforce their position? What coalitions and constellations will they mobilise (industry bodies, relations with political parties). What discourses (around cleanliness, safety, reliability, care) will be mobilised. Under what circumstances are challengers (be they niche actors or incumbents from competing/overlapping systems) able to force system change? In what ways will the state be a primary arena for struggle? How will civil society actors be tactically incorporated? What are the fracture and fissure points? (How) will the need to decarbonise economies and institutions be imbricated into these battles? Methods – Interviews with participants, keeping tabs on the industry associations and the revolting door – sorry, revolving door – with the state, and intra-state battles.
- How will existing NGOs and SMOs seeking to force a transition/transformation at the socio-technical/socio-material level actually stuff it up, (because they will). What strategic alliances will they be unable, unwilling to create and maintain? What lacks – of operational capacity, of credibility and legitimacy- will doom them to ongoing irrelevance? Methods – Participant observation, attending sage-on-the-stage meetings (aka “the meatspace equivalent of clicktivism”), going on marches, interviewing “strategic” leads of NGOs/SMOs.
- What scope is there for new actors (entrepreneurs morally, politically, economically) to repurpose existing discourses (safety, responsibility, justice) and forge (in every sense) alliances and constellations of actors which can accelerate (ah, that bloody word again) the delegitimisation of fossil fuel-centric incumbencies and give birth to some new rough beast, as we all slouch towards Armageddon? Methods – Participant observation, interviews, getting nicked, that sort of thing.
Have PhD, will travel. Not great at quantitative, but I do a mean interview. Reasonable general knowledge.
References (may not be complete, and may include some stuff that I didn’t reference. So it goes).
Agamben, G. 2020. Clarifications. Itself, 17 March.
Applebaum, A. 2020. The Coronavirus Called America’s Bluff. The Atlantic.
Baker, P. 2020. ‘We can’t go back to normal’: how will coronavirus change the world?The Guardian, 31 March
Bordoff, J. 2020. Coronavirus pandemic shows why no global progress on climate change. Foreign Policy
Dayen, D. 2020. Unsanitized: Bailouts, A Tradition Unlike Any Other. The American Prospect,
Fife, B. and Hines, T. 2020. I can’t relate. Damage, 9 March
Garrett, L. 1994. The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World out of Balance.
Ghosh, B. Bloomfield, G. and Schot, J. 2020. Conversations on COVID-19: Consequences for the Second Deep Transition and the Sustainability Revolution. TIP Consortium, 27 March
Johnstone, P. and McLeish, C. 2020 The Role of War in Deep Transitions: Exploring Mechanisms, Imprints and Rules in Sociotechnical Systems. SPRU working paper.
Joshi, K. 2020. Watch out for this symptom of Coronavirus: lazy ecofascism. Ketan Joshi. Co. 20th March.
Lawrence, T. B.; Suddaby, R. (2006). “Institutions and Institutional work”. In Clegg, S; Hardy, C; Lawrence, T (eds.). Handbook of Organization Studies (2nd ed.). London: Sage. pp. 215–254.
Lombrana, L. 2020. The Post-Virus Economic Recovery Could Be a Green One. Bloomberg
Maguire, S. and Hardy, C. 2009. Discourse and Deinstitutionalization: The Decline of DDT. The Academy of Management Journal Vol. 52, No. 1 (Feb., 2009), pp. 148-178
Mair, 2013. Ruling the Void: The Hollowing out of Western Democracy. Verso
Mair, S. 2020. What will the world be like after coronavirus. Four possible futures. The Conversation
Mazzucato, M. 2020. Covid 19 Crisis is a chance to do capitalism differently. The Guardian, 18th March.
Meadway, J. The Anti-wartime economy. Tribune
Tienhaara, K. 2020. Coronavirus and the economy: we need green stimulus, not fossil fuel bailouts. The Conversation
Yong, E. 2020. How the Pandemic Will End. The Atlantic, March 25