The theory behind this element of the NPF originates in the works of Schattschneider (1960) and more recently Pralle (2006), where winning groups try to restrict participation (issue containment) by limiting the scope of the conflict, while losing groups try to widen participation (issue expansion) in a policy issue. In terms of narrative, the storyteller seeks to contain or expand through the distribution of costs and benefits to the opposed policy solution; winning narratives diffuse benefits and concentrate costs, whereas losing narratives concentrate benefits and diffuse costs (McBeth et al., 2007).
(Shanahan et al. 2011:544)
Shanahan, E. Jones, M. and McBeth, M. 2011. Policy Narratives and Policy Processes. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 39 (3). pp.535-561.
Pralle, Sarah B. 2006. Branching Out Digging In: Environmental Advocacy and Agenda Setting. Washington, DC: Georgetown Press.