Anand and Khanna (2000) define inter-firm alliances as interlinked organizations which create, acquire and integrate the diverse knowledge and capabilities required to innovate and develop complex technologies. Examples are strategic alliances, joint ventures and close supplier–producer relationships (Anand and Khanna, 2000; Kale et al., 2002; Gassmann, 2006).
Chadha, A. 2011. Overcoming competence Lock-in for the Development of Radical Eco-innovations: The Case of Biopolymer Technology. Industry and Innovation, Vol. 18, (3), pp.335-350.
Anand, B. N. and Khanna, T. (2000) Do firms learn to create value? The case of alliances, Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), pp. 295–315.