We propose that performance will be enhanced or sustained by dynamic capabilities that operate to improve the efficiency, positioning, or credibility of the firm. Specifically, dynamic capabilities that increase efficiency and legitimacy, enhance first mover advantages and firm reputation, protect current assets and market position, or redefine the institutional definitions of political demands and policies to match firms’ interests will predominate in explaining the effectiveness of reactive, anticipatory, defensive, and proactive political strategies, respectively.
(Oliver and Holzinger, 2008: 506-7)
Oliver, C. and Holzinger, I. 2008. The effectiveness of strategic political management: A dynamic capabilities framework. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 33, (2), pp.496-520.
Anticipatory corporate political strategy
Defensive corporate political strategy
Proactive corporate political strategy
Reactive corporate political strategy