“When radical innovations impact an industry, established incumbents are sometimes displaced by new challengers, yet at other times, survive and prosper. What are the factors that influence these possible outcomes? Extensive as the studies are in providing insights into incumbent-challenger dynamics (ICD), the fragmented nature of the literature and the isolated treatment of various constructs at a particular level of analysis, merit a review and analysis”
(Ansari and Krop, 2012: 1357)
Brilliant paper -Ansari, S. and Krop. P. 2012. Incumbent performance in the face of a radical innovation: Towards a framework. Research Policy 41) 1357–1374.