A new concept in the extension of Multiple Streams Approach by Howlett et al (2016), confluence points exist between agenda setting and policy formation, and again between decision making and implementation.
“each confluence point brings something new (new actors, new tactics, new resources) joining the flow of policymaking events. Where each stream intersects, the merger point represents a ‘window’ in Kingdon’s sense, and yields a different configuration of policy inputs that generate a distinct policy pattern through each particular juncture much as the ‘rounds’ style of policy-making theories have suggested (Klijn and Teisman 1991; Timmermans 2001).”
Howlett, M. McConnell, A. and Perl, A. 2016. Moving Policy Theory Forward: Connecting Multiple Stream and Advocacy Coalition Frameworks to Policy Cycle Models of Analysis. Australian Journal of Public Administration, in press.