National Systems of Innovation

Wikipedia The National Innovation System (also NIS, National System of Innovation) is the flow of technology and information among people, enterprises and institutions which is key to the innovative process on the national level. According to innovation system theory, innovation and technology development are results of a complex set of relationships among actors in the system, which includes enterprises, universities and government research institutes. The term  National System of Innovation originated when Christopher Freeman and Bengt-Åke Lundvall worked together in the late 1980s. Freeman’s research drew heavily on political economy of Friedrich List and his historical account of the rise of Japan as an economic superpower. Lundvall’s work explored the important social interactions between suppliers and customers and their role in encouraging innovation in Denmark. Apart from a general definition, as above, there is no canonical definition of national innovation systems. A few dominant definitions are listed below (quoted by the OECD publication National Innovation Systems, 1997) which overlap quite a bit:


FWIW, here’s a blog I wrote about (sort of) this.

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