Closed innovation

Wikipedia – Before being open, innovation happened in closed environments often performed by individuals, scientists or employees. However, the expression closed innovation was coined later and not before the paradigm of open innovation became popular by works of Henry Chesbrough[1] and Don Tapscott et Anthony D. Williams [2]

Closed Innovation was described in March 2003 by Henry Chesbrough, a professor and executive director at the Center for Open Innovation at UC Berkeley, in his book Open Innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology.[1] The concept is related to user innovation, Know-How Trading and mass innovation and subject of recent research projects [3]

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