“Meta-innovation incorporates non-linear, forward and reverse linear modalities. Academic incubation began by realizing the potential of the forward linear model, taking science from the laboratory into the world. However, the nature and type of organization incubated may be expected to vary with local societal conditions and opportunity structures, e.g., the build-up of academic research with commercial potential or the need to create employment for marginalized populations.”

Etzkowic, H., de Mellob,J. and Almeida, M. 2005 Towards “meta-innovation” in Brazil: The evolution of the incubator and the emergence of a triple helix. Research Policy, Vol. 34, (4), pp.411–424.

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