Policy Entrepreneurs

Key to all notions of change is the people who make it happen. Especially key to Multiple Streams, of course.

They need luck, determination, skills, access, more luck. They have to have the willingness and ability to exploit focusing events, turn them into windows of opportunity [that’s more voluntaristic than the theory generally allows – I’m a Nietzschean Maoist, so sue me]
Distinct from policy brokers!
See also work of Karin Norgaard.

See that Minton and M paper, 2009…

“Brouwer and Biermann (2011) identify four types of strategies in their research of Dutch water management: attention and support seeking strategies, linking strategies, relational management strategies, and arena (venue) strategies. They argue that use of these strategies by policy entrepreneurs at the right timing could influence the development of policy streams.” Petridou, 2014: S22)

Brouwer, Stijn, and Frank Biermann. 2011. “Towards Adaptive Management: Examining the Strategies of Policy Entrepreneurs in Dutch Water Management.” Ecology and Society 16 (4): 5.

Drawing conclusions from a comparative study of 15 cases of water management across different countries, Meijerink and Huitema (2010) differentiate between five types of entrepreneurial strategies: coalition building, idea development and dissemination, venue shopping, network management, and strategic framing of ideas and opportunities.

(Zahariadis and Exadaktylos. 2016;62)

Zahariadis, N. and Exadaktylos, T. 2016. Policies that Succeed and Programs that Fail: Ambiguity, Conflict, and Crisis in Greek Higher Education. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 44 (1), p. 59-82.

Meijerink, Sander, and Dave Huitema. 2010. “Policy Entrepreneurs and Change Strategies: Lessons from Sixteen Case Studies of Water Transitions Around the Globe.” Ecology and Society 15 (2): 21

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