In the extensions of Multiple Streams Approach to include decision-making as well as agenda-setting, Howlett et al. suggest the concept of ‘confluence points’ and sub-confluence points’, where new actors, new arguments, new conflicts might be introduced.
“The end of this appraisal phase is marked by a sub-confluence point (IA), which also constitutes the beginning of the consolidation phase of policy formation and the configuration of the various streams… Further confluence and sub-confluence points are possible with each confluence point capable of bringing something different (such as new actors, new agenda-setting streams, new tactics) to the flow of events and each intersection point representing a ‘window’ in Kingdon’s sense, but with a different configuration of streams passing through each particular juncture (Klijn & Teisman 1991; Timmermans 2001).”
(Howlett, et al. 2015:247)
Howlett, M. McConnell, A. and Perl, A. 2015. Streams and stages: Reconciling Kingdon and policy process theory. European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 54, pp.419-434.
See also Confluence Points