On February 1st Malcolm Turnbull will make a major speech on the Coalition’s climate and energy policy at the National Press Club.In his last public utterance on the topic, at the Sydney fish market in December last year, he spilt coffee , perhaps trying to douse the flames caused by Josh Frydenberg’s declaration that carbon pricing would be considered in this year’s policy review. Turnbull ruled that out, so who knows what he will say on Wednesday. One well-informed and immensely experienced observer reports that
“Turnbull will announce new vehicle emissions standards and a new energy efficiency scheme. He and his office are looking at “technological solutions” – bright new ideas in solar thermal, or battery or carbon storage technology that might fill the policy void. But all those technologies need government policies to provide investors with incentives and certainty, and without actually confronting the climate doubters no one can imagine what that policy might be.”
(Another similarly-credentialled observer says he is the weakest Prime Minister since Billy McMahon )Who knows, perhaps Turnbull will dust off the ‘Greenhouse Challenge‘ voluntary programme for industry that Prime Minister Paul Keating started and John Howard extended. We will know soon enough.
Meanwhile, the National Press Club has a long and interesting (if you’re a pathetic geek like me) history with climate change, and it tells us something about Australian journalistic responses to climate change.
The Press Club began life as a press luncheon club, the result of some journalists having an (uncharacteristic for the profession) drinks in a Canberra watering hole. It seeks “to provide a genuine national forum for discussion of the issues of the day by the personalities who help shape them.” (A cynic might say that it is a way for journalists to have stories handed to them literally on a plate, with some nice plonk alongside.) The first speaker, on 17 May 1963, was Chief Justice and External Affairs Minister Sir Garfield Barwick. Soon after Barwick helped establish the Australian Conservation Foundation. The Press Club initially only held a few events a year, but it has grown steadily and there are now about 70 a year. Early environmental speakers included conservationist Harry Butler (October 3 1979) and in mid 1984 the German Greens Petra Kelly who you can hear here
The Club, naturally, reflects the concerns of the day, and politicians of the day fly kites and announce policies. The climate issue seems to have reached the Club in October 1988,when the Liberal Senator Chris Puplick, the Opposition’s Environment spokesperson launched the Opposition’s environmental policy and spoke on past Coalition. It seems bizarre now, but Puplick then went on to develop a policy on climate change that was more ambitious than Labor’s and took it to the 1990 Federal election.
Puplick and his Labor opponent Graham Richardson debated at the Press Club on March 7, 1990, just before the Federal election, and it was from the club that Bob Hawke made his final (and successful) appeal to green-minded voters, calling on disaffected voters not to vote green but, if they did so, to direct their second preferences to Labour. He warned. “When you wake up on 25 March there won’t be a Democrat government or a green independent government.”
In June 1989, the inaugural Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory, Rosemary Follett, had appeared at the club and said that she was
“particularly concerned with environmental issues of national and international significance. The people of the ACT can be assured that the government intends to act locally in addressing issues such as the Greenhouse Effect and Protection of the Ozone Layer.”
Richardson had appeared shortly afterwards,after two cancellations for lack of journalist interest.. He talked tough (it’s how the man rolls) on the Federal government perhaps using its constitutional powers to override state decisions on environmental matters. He also confirmed a report by Michelle Grattan about a Cabinet meeting at which Treasurer Paul Keating had vetoed his proposal for a 20 per cent reduction in Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2005 (the so-called ‘Toronto Target’ ). He told the assembled hacks
“… When I put this target to our Cabinet, I came under close questioning by the economic ministers. I couldn’t sustain my argument with sufficient science.
“I haven’t yet learnt how to lose gracefully so I was angry. I delved into the department’s records so that I could write to my Cabinet colleagues and demand a reconsideration. The cupboard, however was bare, and the letter was never written.”
[Dunn, R. 1989. Cabinet reduces greenhouse target. Australian Financial Review, 26 July.]
Sir Ninian Stephen, by then Australia’s first Environment Ambassador, spoke wittily in late 1990 on the topic of “the environment: a passing storm or an issue for all seasons” (you can listen here – He argued that it didn’t matter what he said, only if he blundered in the Q and A.
The following year the Canadian entrepreneur behind the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, Maurice Strong, spoke. In November 1992, after Rio, Jeremy Leggett, a former geologist who had become Greenpeace International’s Atmosphere and Energy Campaign leader spoke (his book The Carbon War is a terrific read, btw).
Amid all the advocates of action (Ian Lowe, Peter Garrett, David Suzuki, Bob Brown, Gro Harlam Brundtland, Nick Stern), perhaps the one we should most remember is President Kinza Cloduma of Nauru. In late 1997, when the Australian government’s diplomatic push for special treatment at the impending Kyoto Protocol meeting had silenced the South Pacific Forum’s attempt at a strong pro-action statement, Cloduma told the journalists
“I am not impressed when Mr. Howard openly scorns the critical nature of the situation in order to bow to the will of the fossil fuel industry.”
There have been peaks and troughs of concern since then, with scientists speaking in September 2000 “Greenhouse Science Forum: How Real is Climate Change? What does Science Tell Us?”, Ian Lowe spoke in 2005 on “ Is Nuclear Power Part of Australia’s Global Warming Solution?” (his answer was ‘nope’).
In the white-heat of the 2008-9 carbon pricing battles, Ross Garnaut seems to have had a camp-bed at the NPC, so often was he using it to launch various drafts of his climate reviews. The Greens’ Christine Milne argued on 17 June 2009 that “The Climate nightmare is upon us.” Bob Brown and Ziggy Switowski debated nuclear versus renewables in April of the following year [thanks to the reader who alerted me to this!]
Less emphatically, Penny Wong, Kevin Rudd, Greg Combet and Julia Gillard all used the NPC to launch various climate policy papers. In mid 2011, Gillard, under ferocious attack over her carbon proposal launched “The Government’s plan for a clean energy future”. She was asked by Mark Riley about journalist famously suggesting that journalists ‘don’t write crap – it can’t be that hard.’
Since then the club has seen – among others –
Two way traffic
It hasn’t been one-way traffic. An early example of a sceptical perspective came in mid 1992 when Prof Richard Lindzen, Professor of Meteorology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology spoke. (He had been brought out by the CSIRO atmospheric science division, which was then headed by G.B Tucker. Tucker had been aware of the issue in the mid-70s, and written an early monograph – The CO2-climate connection : a global problem from an Australian perspective– in 1981, but in retirement wrote pieces for the Institute for Public Affairs with titles like ‘The Greenhouse Panic’. But I digress)
Three years later the Club heard from Dr Patrick Moore who was billed as a “ Canadian Environmentalist and one of the founders of Greenpeace”.The first term can be debated. The second cannot.
Climate change exploded as a public policy issue in Australia in late 2006. It’s ironic to remember now, but when John Howard’s hand-picked emissions taskforce suggested that a low tax on carbon emissions — less than $5 per tonne – might give Australia a start in preparing for an eventual global emissions trading system , the Minerals Council of Australia chief executive Mitchell Hooke argued at the press club that while Australia should not embark on unilateral action, there was scope for “unilateral leadership”. He said
“I don’t want a blunt economic instrument of a carbon tax [but] I would see that kind of low order price as being part of a cap and trade framework.”
Hooke hardened his line, of course, as time went on. At the peak of the 2011 carbon pricing battles, in June, the Australian Coal Association’s Ralph Hillman spoke on “The mining industry’s position on the carbon tax.”
The same month, Lord Monckton and the Australia Institute’s Richard Denniss squared off in a debate. Two weeks later former President Vaclav Klaus President of the Czech Republic spoke on “Climate Change: A new ideology”
Bjorn Lomborg followed up his October 2003 visit with another ten years later in December 2013. Now that he won’t be having his ‘consensus centre’ , the trend suggests it might be another 6 years before he appears again.
Journalism and climate change
The Press Club’s willingness to host those who deny basic scientific facts is indicative of a broader difficulty that journalism has had with this issue. Academic studies of the journalism profession’s dilemma over climate change. One influential paper argues that “balance is bias”, given the overwhelming scientific argument (and dare we say ‘consensus’) on anthropogenic climate change. The authors argue that
“the prestige press’s adherence to balance actually leads to biased coverage of both anthropogenic contributions to global warming and resultant action.”
John Oliver put it more visually with this stunt on ‘Last Week Tonight’
Australia’s experience has been extensively studied – see here, here, here, here, here, here, here and here. For starters.
All this is part of a battle for hearts and minds – what counts as ‘common sense’ and shapes or sustains the institutions – “stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior” – underpinning society.
Recently scientists have been admitting that studying climate change exacts an emotional toll. Journalists are following suit.
Malcolm Turnbull first addressed the club on March 18 1992, wearing his Australian Republican Movement hat. He might need better head-wear this time round. When Kevin Rudd launched the White Paper of his ill-fated and unloved Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme three protesters were dragged out The numbers of protesters there to greet him on February 1st will probably fall closer to that than the 1500 who turned up to say g’day to Pauline Hanson in 1997
But on the day, and indeed all through the year, Turnbull will – like other endangered Australian fauna – be feeling the heat.