Best avoided, if you are a non-ambidextrous incumbent, trying to keep things stable, sweat your assets….
To contain the possibility of an innovation race, the Big Three formed another closed industry-front (1991) so that all companies would move together technologically. The U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) was a public-private partnership launched by President Bush (senior) and the Big Three. Although most of the funds came from the Department of Energy (DoE), the Big Three ran the programme and decided which battery developers and projects received grants (Doyle, 2000).
(Penna and Geels, 2015: 1039)