By definition, CPA means “any deliberate firm action intended to influence governmental policy or process” (Getz, 1997, pp. 32-33) or, on a more strategic level, “a concerted pattern of actions taken in the nonmarket environment to create value by improving overall performance” (Baron, 1997, p. 146). [Mantere et al. 2009:105-6.]
Mantere, S., Pajunen, K. and Lamberg, J.-A. (2009). Vices and virtues of corporate political activity. Business and Society, 48, pp. 105–132.
There is, of course, a huge huge literature on all of this. Some personal favourites –
Dahan, N. 2009. The four Ps of corporate political activity: a framework for environmental analysis and corporate action. Journal of Public Affairs, Vol. 9, pp.111–123.
den Hond, F. Rehbein, K., Bakker, F. and Lankveld, H.2014. Playing on Two Chessboards: Reputation Effects between Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) and Corporate Political Activity ( CPA). Journal of Management Studies, Vol.51(5), pp.790-81.
Frynas, J. and Stephens, S. 2015. Political Corporate Social Responsibility: reviewing Theories and Setting New Agendas. International Journal of Management Reviews, Vol. 17, pp.483-509.
Hillman, A. and Hitt, M. 1999. Corporate Political Strategy Formulation: A Model of Approach, Participation, and Strategy Decisions. The Academy of Management Review Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 825-842.
Hillman, A, Keim, G. and Schuler, D. 2004. Corporate Political Activity: A Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Management, Vol.30(6), pp.837-857.
Kolk,A..and Pinkse, J. 2007. Multinationals’ political activities on climate change. Business and Society, Vol.46, (2), pp.201-228
Lawton, T., Mcguire, S. and Rajwani, T. 2013. Corporate Political Activity: A Literature Review and Research Agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, Vol.15(1), pp.86-105.
Marchand, R. 1998. Creating the Corporate Soul. The Rise of Public Relations and Corporate Imagery in American Big Business. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Mellahi, K. Frynas, J. Sun, P. and Siegel, D. 2016. A Review of Nonmarket Strategy Literature: Toward a Multi-Theoretical Integration. Journal of Management, Vol. 42, (1), pp.143-173.