Took place from October 29 to November 10 2001
After the Hague had ended in debacle, smoothed over in Bonn in July, this was kind of important for the whole process to get some credibility back.
Saturday, 10 November 2001 – DELEGATES SEAL DEAL
7:15 AM GMT
Ministers and other senior officials have completed their work at COP-7 by finalizing a deal to bring to a close three years of work under the Buenos Aires Plan of Action. The agreement came after protracted negotiations that left many delegates “exhausted.” The deal, which was signed off in a closing Plenary held around 6:00 am Saturday morning, was immediately hailed by some observers as a success that will move negotiations into a new phase. The deal involved compromises on various issues, including the use of sinks and eligibility under the mechanisms. Several participants suggested that the Russian Federation had secured a “good deal” on sinks, and that the final agreement had moved closer to Umbrella Group positions than the original package deal proposed Thursday night.
Australia’s position, action:
“At the FCCC negotiations in Marrakech in 2001, Australia successfully negotiated the last minute inclusion of a clause providing a broader definition of carbon sinks for sequestration purposes. These concessions place Australia in a particularly advantageous position relative to other industrial economies.” (Rosewarne, 2003: 1)
Babiker, M., Jacoby, D., Reilly, D. and Reine, D. 2002. The evolution of a climate regime: Kyoto to Marrakech and beyond. Environmental Science & Policy Vol. 5, pp. 195–206.
At meetings in Bonn and Marrakech in 2001, the Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change broke through an impasse on the detailed provisions needed to allow the Kyoto Protocol to enter into force. Key ingredients in the breakthrough included US withdrawal from the process, an effective relaxation of emissions targets for Japan, Canada, and Russia, and provision of access to unrestricted emissions trading. We analyze the costs of implementation and the environmental effectiveness of the Bonn–Marrakech agreement, and its effect on the relative roles of CO2 versus non-CO2 greenhouse gases. The ability of the major sellers of permits, notably Russia and Ukraine, to restrict access to permits, and the ability to trade across all greenhouse gases controlled under the Protocol, are both found to have a significant effect for both costs and effectiveness. Nevertheless, the current agreement requires reductions that do not constitute a significant step in accomplishing the long-term objectives of the Framework Convention. While the letter of the agreement does not require substantive action, individual nations have indicated an interest in actions that will affect the distribution of costs and could improve the environmental effectiveness of the agreement. The Bush administration proposal allows for emissions growth that exceeds even that found under the weakened Protocol, but is important for re-engaging the US and offering a possible approach for developing countries in future commitment periods. Finally, the potential for reconciling competing systems is explored.